|Portrait of Pope Paulus IV(?)
It has been suggested that the male profile might be that of Pope Paul IV (born Gian Pietro Carafa, 1476-1559) who instituted the Inquisition as a political organ of the Church, to control not only dogmatic issues but also political and economical businesses. Under his papacy was introduced the 'Index librorum prohibitorum' and 'ghettos' for the Jews were institutionalized with the 'Cum nimis absurdum' bull (1555). This bull revoked all the rights of the Jewish community and placed religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States, renewed anti-Jewish legislation and subjected Jews to various degradations and heavy restrictions on their personal freedom.
Signed within internal border: 'T. D. B. F.'. On the verso unknown collector's mark.
|The Mistress of Babylon
Reference nr. 60535
by Anna Bianco